Mannerism (Mannerism, Italian. Maniera – style, manner), a term used in the theory of fine art. He became popular thanks to the artist and biographer of the 16th century Vasari, who characterized them with a high degree of grace, poise and sophistication in art. However, from the 17th century, most critics, believing that Italian art of the 2nd half of the 16th century was in decline compared to the peaks achieved during the High Renaissance (Renaissance) by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, referred to the term Mannerism as art, which metaphorical saturation, addiction to hyperbole and grotesque are characteristic. As a result, Mannerism began to be called the style adopted by the schools of Italian art, primarily Roman, between the High Renaissance and the Baroque (about 1520 – about 1600). Continue reading
Avant-gardism (from the French avant-garde – advanced detachment) – a set of experimental, modernist, emphasized unusual, exploratory endeavors in the art of the 20th century. The avant-garde directions are: Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, abstractionism, surrealism, actionism, pop art, conceptual art.
At different historical stages, the role of the avant-garde was played by successive currents: 1900-1910. – the time of the appearance of Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Dada, abstract art; in the 1920-1930s. Surrealism comes to the fore, in the post-war period, new trends of abstractionism arise – abstract expressionism, Tashism, informal art, etc .; 1960-1970s – the transitional era from the “classical” avant-garde to neo-avant-garde, or postmodernism with its components – actionism, pop art, conceptualism, kinetic art and other artistic art practices. Continue reading