Naturalism – (French naturalisme, from lat. Natura – nature) – a direction in literature and art that developed in the last third of the XIX century in Europe and the USA. Under the influence of the ideas of positivism, the main representatives of which were O. Comte and G. Spencer, this movement strove for an objective and dispassionate depiction of reality, likening artistic knowledge to scientific, proceeded from the idea of the complete predetermination of fate, the dependence of the spiritual world of a person on the social environment, heredity and physiology.
In the field of art, naturalism was developed primarily in the works of French writers – brothers E. and J. Goncurov and Emil Zola, who believed that the artist should reflect the world around him without any embellishment, conventions and taboos, with maximum objectivity, positivistic truth. Continue reading
Mannerism (Mannerism, Italian. Maniera – style, manner), a term used in the theory of fine art. He became popular thanks to the artist and biographer of the 16th century Vasari, who characterized them with a high degree of grace, poise and sophistication in art. However, from the 17th century, most critics, believing that Italian art of the 2nd half of the 16th century was in decline compared to the peaks achieved during the High Renaissance (Renaissance) by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, referred to the term Mannerism as art, which metaphorical saturation, addiction to hyperbole and grotesque are characteristic. As a result, Mannerism began to be called the style adopted by the schools of Italian art, primarily Roman, between the High Renaissance and the Baroque (about 1520 – about 1600). Continue reading
Lyrical abstraction, lyrical-emotional, psychological abstractionism is one of the areas of abstract art, which is characterized by a desire for a direct expression of the artist’s emotional, mental states and improvisational performance. Lyrical abstraction is the European parallel of American abstract expressionism. Other names for this trend are formless painting and tashism.
The founder of this trend was the Russian artist Vasily Kandinsky – a recognized leader and theorist of abstractionism, the basic principles and provisions of which were set forth by him in his works On the Spiritual in Art (1911); “Retrospective” (1913); “Point and line on the plane” (1926). Continue reading