Naturalism – (French naturalisme, from lat. Natura – nature) – a direction in literature and art that developed in the last third of the XIX century in Europe and the USA. Under the influence of the ideas of positivism, the main representatives of which were O. Comte and G. Spencer, this movement strove for an objective and dispassionate depiction of reality, likening artistic knowledge to scientific, proceeded from the idea of the complete predetermination of fate, the dependence of the spiritual world of a person on the social environment, heredity and physiology.
In the field of art, naturalism was developed primarily in the works of French writers – brothers E. and J. Goncurov and Emil Zola, who believed that the artist should reflect the world around him without any embellishment, conventions and taboos, with maximum objectivity, positivistic truth. Continue reading
Mannerism (Mannerism, Italian. Maniera – style, manner), a term used in the theory of fine art. He became popular thanks to the artist and biographer of the 16th century Vasari, who characterized them with a high degree of grace, poise and sophistication in art. However, from the 17th century, most critics, believing that Italian art of the 2nd half of the 16th century was in decline compared to the peaks achieved during the High Renaissance (Renaissance) by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, referred to the term Mannerism as art, which metaphorical saturation, addiction to hyperbole and grotesque are characteristic. As a result, Mannerism began to be called the style adopted by the schools of Italian art, primarily Roman, between the High Renaissance and the Baroque (about 1520 – about 1600). Continue reading
Cubism (from French cubisme, came from cube – cube) is a modernist trend in painting of the early twentieth century, which highlighted the formal task of constructing volumetric shapes on a plane, minimizing the visual and cognitive functions of art. The word “cubists” was used in 1908 and 1909 by the French critic L. Vossel as a mocking nickname for a group of artists depicting the objective world as a combination of geometric bodies or figures. The most famous artist in this direction of painting: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973).
At the turn of the First World War, the influence of European painting fell sharply. Continue reading