Orphism (French orphisme, named after the character of the ancient Greek mythology of the singer Orpheus) is a trend in European painting of the 1910s, close to cubism and futurism. The term “Orphism” was invented by the poet and art critic Guillaume Apollinaire (Orphism as the culprit of Orpheus) to characterize the work of Robert Delaunay and publicly announced during a lecture on contemporary painting in October 1912. The proposed name, the poet apparently wanted to emphasize a particular musicality , intuitiveness, irrationality of abstract art Delaunay.
Subsequently, Apollinaire extended this concept to the work of cubists, Dadaists and artists of the Blue Horseman group (Kandinsky, Mark, Macke, Yavlensky), introducing a certain confusion into the essence of the concept itself.
Orphism is a local, short-lived stream in painting, represented by the names of Robert Delaunay, his wife Sonya Terk-Delaunay, Frantisek Kupka and their few followers, among whom the most prominent figures were Fernand Leger, Francis Picabia, Vladimir Baranova-Rossine. Continue reading
Op art (from English op art, short for optical art – optical art) is a neo-avant-garde trend in the visual arts, one of the later modifications of abstract art. In op art, the effects of spatial displacement, merging, and “hovering” of forms were achieved by introducing sharp color and tonal contrasts, rhythmic repetitions, intersecting spiral and lattice configurations, curving lines.
The basis of op-art is in the artistically organized optical effects (effects of spatial displacement, hovering, fusion of forms), which were achieved by geometrized combinations of lines and spots with the introduction of sharp color and tonal contrasts, rhythmic repeats, wriggling lines, the intersection of spiral and trellised configurations. The use of mirrors, lenses, trembling metal plates and wires, installations of changing light, dynamic structures, enhances the effect of exposure, creates a special aesthetic environment, achieving a high degree of abstraction from the concrete. Continue reading
Classicism (derived from the Latin classicus – exemplary) is an artistic style and aesthetic trend in European literature and art of the 17th – beginning of the 19th centuries, one of the important features of which was the appeal to the images and forms of ancient literature and art as an ideal aesthetic standard. A work of art, from the point of view of classicism, should be built on the basis of strict canons, thereby revealing the harmony and logic of the universe itself. Of interest to classicism is only eternal and unchanging. In each phenomenon, he seeks to recognize only essential, typological features, discarding random individual signs. The aesthetics of classicism attaches great importance to the social educational function of art. Classicism takes many of the rules and canons from ancient art.
Classicism is based on the ideas of rationalism, which were formed simultaneously with the same ideas in the philosophy of Descartes. Continue reading