Mannerism (Mannerism, Italian. Maniera – style, manner), a term used in the theory of fine art. He became popular thanks to the artist and biographer of the 16th century Vasari, who characterized them with a high degree of grace, poise and sophistication in art. However, from the 17th century, most critics, believing that Italian art of the 2nd half of the 16th century was in decline compared to the peaks achieved during the High Renaissance (Renaissance) by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, referred to the term Mannerism as art, which metaphorical saturation, addiction to hyperbole and grotesque are characteristic. As a result, Mannerism began to be called the style adopted by the schools of Italian art, primarily Roman, between the High Renaissance and the Baroque (about 1520 – about 1600).
It is customary to speak of Mannerism beginning with Raphael, when he abandoned the extremely clear and balanced means of expression characteristic of the High Renaissance, and began to work in a more sophisticated manner. Mannerism is characterized by elongation of figures, tension of postures (counterpost), unusual or bizarre effects associated with size, lighting or perspective, and bright colors. In sculpture, the forerunner of Mannerism was Jambolonha, whose art, which had a great influence on his contemporaries, combines the whimsical poses with exquisite smoothness and elegance of forms. The leading sculptures-mannerists include Benvenuto Cellini. Mannerism in architecture is also difficult to define, as in painting and sculpture, but often implies a conscious contempt for established rules and classical traditions.
Outside of Italy, Mannerists are sometimes called representatives of the Fontainebleau school in France, Dutch artists of the 16th century (many of them took the ideas of Mannerism, having been to Italy) and El Greco in Spain. In literature and music, the term “Mannerism” is used even more widely than in fine art and architecture. So, “mannerist” is called literary works, which are characterized by the floridity of the syllable, the complicated syntax and the use of fantastically fantastic images. The most famous example is the two-volume novel “Euphoes” (1578-1580) by John Lily, who gave rise to the term “euphism”, which signified a highly artificial and artsy style. In music, “Mannerist” is considered, for example, the work of the Italian composer, author of the madrigals Carlo Gesualdo di Venosa, whose works are distinguished by unusual harmony, a sudden change in pace and vivid expression.
Artists of mannerism: Jan Van Skorel, Vasari, El Greco.