Luchism (rayonismus, from the French.rayon – ray) is an art school in Russian art of the 1910s, associated with the names of Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova.
In 1913, at the Target exhibition, luchism was introduced to the general public as a new trend in modern painting. In the same year, a manifesto was published revealing the principles of rayism: the purpose of painting is to convey the fourth dimension, where other pictorial laws and techniques rule. The artist should not depict the objects themselves (visible forms), but the color rays reflected from them (internal essence); convey on the canvas the impressions arising from the meeting in the space of intersecting light and energy rays of various objects. According to Larionov, “the perception is not of the object itself, but the sum of the rays from it, by its nature, is much closer to the symbolic plane of the picture than the object itself …”.In addition, such an image is as close as possible to what objects “are seen by the eye”. However, the artist should not just reproduce the rays in the picture in a chaotic manner, but use them to create the form in accordance with his own aesthetic views. Therefore, the paintings of the radiators were either images with sharp contours, refracted in beams of oblique lines, or abstract combinations of beams of multi-colored rays and radiant forms, which allowed V. Mayakovsky to call rayism a cubistic interpretation of impressionism.
Erasing the “boundaries between the picture plane and nature”, taking a colored line for the conventional image of a ray on a plane, rayism, in essence, was an early variety of Russian abstract art.
However, this movement was short-lived, as after 1914, Goncharova and Larionov actually moved away from easel painting (they took up theatrical design art), and the number of their followers was small.
Larionov and Goncharova tried to apply their method to creating theatrical scenery for Diaghilev’s “Russian Seasons”, using real rays to illuminate the scene, but these were only isolated cases.
Masters of radiation: Mikhail Larionov, Natalya Goncharova, Kirill Zdanevich, Sergey Romanovich, Alexander Shevchenko, Mikhail Le-Dantyu.