Constructivism is a trend in Soviet art of the 1920s. XX century The proponents of constructivism, having put forward the task of constructing an environment that actively guides life processes, sought to comprehend the formative capabilities of new technology, its logical, appropriate designs, as well as the aesthetic capabilities of materials such as metal, glass, wood. Conspicuity, constructivists sought to contrast the simplicity and emphasized utilitarianism of new subject forms, in which they saw the reification of democracy and new relationships between people.
Constructive artists with enviable persistence began to put their ideas into practice. Based on simple materials (metal, concrete, glass), they created concise things for modern everyday life, thereby simplifying the lives of people. The idea of subordinating architectural volumes melted in their minds.With the use of more durable materials, the need for rigid frames was sharply reduced and the decorative elements of the composition went far beyond the necessary limits, notes of unhealthy expressionism appeared. In the buildings of the new generation, there was no feeling of power and tension, and the bloated form caused a double attitude.
The Vesnin brothers, M. Ya. Ginzburg, in Russia firmly believed that constructivism leads to the creation of democratic relations in society and is aimed at combating the bourgeois. Artists and architects who survived the October Revolution sought to make every thing useful to the people. Urban motifs with their rigor and geometry were read at all stages of style formation. In 1924, the official creative organization of the constructivists was formed – the OCA. Her ideas were reflected in the following projects: work clubs, kitchen factories, communal houses, Labor palaces.
Many European artists tried to perform work in the style of constructivism. So Fernand Leger created ornate panels where, pipes, couplings, metal planes, smooth parts were part of the people. Dutch authors resorted to his ideas – Theo Van Dusburg and Pete Mondrian. But constructivism in its pure form did not last long in the West and degenerated into new trends (neoplasticism). Only in Russia, the love of the simplicity of forms and simple ideas allowed constructivism to develop fully. The Vesnin brothers, V. Tatlin, Mikhail Ginzburg, K. Melnikov, I. Leonidov, L. Lisitsky – became the founders of this art.
The masters came up with removable decorations in the theater, which significantly simplified the technical and staging organization. In printing, graphics have changed, new layout and layout rules have been introduced. In the visual arts, posters gained wide significance. All the paintings had strictly geometric proportions, did not differ in the variety of colors (red, black, white interspersed with yellow and blue). They often used collage and typographic typing. The drawing was planar, was sketchy and resembled architectural drawings. In the future, constructivism was clearly reflected in the photographs, introduced its elements during photomontage. Volumetric buildings were presented in frightening angles and fascinated by their technicality. And although the influence of constructivism was short-lived, but with a confident hand he inscribed himself in the history of the twentieth century.