Avant-gardism
Avant-gardism (from the French avant-garde - advanced detachment) - a set of experimental, modernist, emphasized unusual, exploratory endeavors in the art of the 20th century. The avant-garde directions are: Fauvism,…

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Empire
Empire (from the French. Empire - empire) - a style in architecture and decorative art that arose in France at the beginning of the 19th century, during the First Empire…

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Luchism
Luchism (rayonismus, from the French.rayon - ray) is an art school in Russian art of the 1910s, associated with the names of Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova. In 1913, at…

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Academism

Academism (from the French academisme) is a direction in European painting of the 16th-19th centuries. It was based on dogmatic following the external forms of classical art. Followers characterized this style as a discourse on the art form of the ancient ancient world and the Renaissance. Academism replenished the traditions of ancient art, in which the image of nature was idealized, while compensating for the norm of beauty. Annibale, Agostino and Lodovico Carracci wrote in this style.

The history of the development of Academism is associated with the “Academy of the Right Path” in Bologna (c. 1585), the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648) and the Russian Academy of Three Noble Arts (1757).

The activities of all the academies were based on a strictly regulated educational system, focused on the great achievements of previous eras – antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, from which the individual qualities of classical art that were accepted as ideal and unsurpassed were consciously selected. And the word “academy” itself emphasized continuity with ancient classics (Greek Academia – a school founded by Plato in the 4th century BC and deriving its name from the sacred grove near Athens, where the ancient Greek hero Akadem was buried).

Academicism has a dual meaning in the history of art. On the one hand, it served as a guarantee of preserving the traditions of the art school and respect for the cultural values ​​of the past. But this same inclination towards traditionalism, canonicity carries the danger of separating Academism from modernity, turning it into a dogmatic, conservative direction that impedes the development of a living artistic process. For which criticized the opposing artists, innovators (Wanderers, Impressionists).

The path of Academism in art was not marked by any great discoveries or achievements. By virtue of its artificiality (“done”) and eclecticism, it is not an artistic style. Having no political background, he got along well in different eras, with different regimes (salon academism in France of the 19th century, social academism in the USSR), representing examples of undemanding bourgeois taste.

Masters of Academism: Alexander Cabanel, Adolphe-William Bouguereau, Tom Couture, Charles Gleur, Jules Bastien-Lepage, Fernand Cormon, Emil Auguste, Charles Carolus-Duran, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, John William Horvard, Heinrich Semiradsky, Konstantin Makovsky.

Art Deco
Art Deco (from the French art deco, abbr. From decoratif) - a direction in art in the middle of the 20th century, which marked the synthesis of avant-garde and neoclassicism,…

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Gothic
Gothic (from Italian. Gotico - unusual, barbaric) is a period in the development of medieval art, covering almost all areas of culture and developing in Western, Central and partly Eastern…

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Neo-impressionism
Neo-impressionism - (French neoimpressionisme) - a kind of post-impressionism; the artistic direction in painting that arose in France around 1885, the main theorist and inspirer of which was Georges Seurat.…

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Metarealism
Metarealism (came from the Greek meta - between, after, through, and gealis - material, real) is the realism of many realities connected by the continuity of metabolic transformations and state…

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