Impressionism (from French impression – impression) is a trend in European painting that originated in France in the mid-19th century. Impressionists avoided all the details in the drawing and tried to catch the general impression of what the eye sees at a particular moment. They achieved this effect with the help of color and texture. The artistic conception of impressionism was based on the desire to naturally and naturally capture the world around it in its variability, conveying its fleeting impressions. The most famous artists of this direction of painting: Manet, Renoir, Cezanne, Degas, Monet, Pissarro.
The new movement arose as a reaction to the stagnation of academicism that prevailed in those years, but its appearance was prepared by several factors: the invention of 1839 by L. Dager of photography, which introduced a new vision into art; scientific discoveries of E. Schevrell and O. Ruda in the field of color separation; the appearance in 1941 of tin tubes for perishable paints, which enabled artists to work in the open air. Artists of the Barbizon school prepared the fertile ground for the development of impressionism: they were the first to write sketches from nature. The principle of “writing what you see in the light and air” formed the basis of the open-air painting of the impressionists.
Impressionism originated in the 1860s, the young genre painters E. Manet, O. Renoir, E. Degas tried to breathe freshness and immediacy of observing life into French painting, depicting instant situations, unsteady and unbalanced forms and compositions, unusual angles and points of view. By the early 1870s the impressionist vision was formed in the landscape: C. Monet, C. Pissarro, A. Sisley first developed a consistent plein air system in their works. Work in the open air helped them to create a sensation of sparkling snow on the canvases, the richness of natural colors, the dissolution of objects in the environment, the vibration of light and air. In many respects this was facilitated by the color system developed in the subtleties, in which complex tones were decomposed into the pure colors of the solar spectrum. They were superimposed on the canvas with separate strokes, calculated on optical mixing in the viewer’s eye, which created a surprisingly bright, as if trembling painting. Impressionist artists paid particular attention to the relationship of the subject with the environment, to the study of changes in the color and tone of the object in a changing environment. To this end, they reproduced the same plot several times, achieving incredible purity of color and practically clearing their palette of black paint.
Impressionists presented their art at exhibitions held at irregular intervals from 1874 to 1886. The history of the origin of the term “impressionism” is connected with the first exhibition of the then still anonymous group of artists. The critic Louis Leroy, ironically speaking about the submitted works, especially noted the picture of C. Monet “Impression. Sunrise “(1872), noting that” the wallpaper in the initial stage of processing is more complete than this seascape … “. The new name was liked by the movement’s supporters (though not everyone), since it corresponded to the creative method that they professed: conveying the impression, fixing the elusive moments of life.
In 1886, the last exhibition of the impressionists took place. However, as a pictorial method, impressionism did not cease to exist: similar searches were conducted by masters of other countries – England (J. Winstler), Germany (M. Liberman and L. Corint), Russia (I. Grabar and K. Korovin).
Having made an artistic revolution in the minds of contemporaries, opening new horizons for them, impressionism gave impetus to the development of art and the emergence of new concepts, trends and forms. In its bowels neo-impressionism, post-impressionism, and Fauvism were born, which in turn led to the emergence of new artistic aesthetics and trends.
Masters of impressionism: Eduard Manet, Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Alfred Sisley, Berthe Morisot, Gustave Caillebotte, James Whistler, Konstantin Korovin, Lovis Corint.