Divisionism (from the French division – division), pointillism – the direction of neo-impressionism, writing in separate clear strokes in the form of dots or small squares. The mixing of colors with the formation of shades occurs at the stage of perception of the picture by the viewer. The most famous artists who wrote in this style: Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891), Paul Signac (1863-1935), Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Camille Pissarro, Lucien Pissarro, Henri Edmond Cross, Charles Theophilus Angran, Maximilian Luce, Hippolytus Ptizhan, Georges Lemmen, Theo Van Risselberg, Giovanni Segantini, Nikolai Meshcheryakov.
Divisionism is a pictorial method based on the purposeful decomposition of a complex color tone into spectrally pure colors, which are applied to the canvas with dots of various configurations, and then, when the viewer perceives the picture from a certain position, they optically merge into the color of the eye in the retina of the artist.
The elements of divisionism clearly manifest themselves already in the open-air painting of the Impressionists, who used this method more intuitively, guided by emotions and observation, rather than knowledge and reason.
The founders of divisionism are neo-impressionist painters Georges Seurat and Paul Signac, who tried to bring to a logical conclusion the empirical findings of their predecessors, combining art and science. Based on the psychophysiology of color perception and theoretical works by Eugene Chevreul, Ogden Rud and German Helmholtz, they scientifically substantiated the new pictorial method and practically applied it in their work.
Divisionism contrasted the randomness and randomness of the impressionist strokes with a clear system of calculating and overlapping points, which made the artist’s work very difficult and time-consuming, and the method of writing was strict and dry, but at the same time led to the effect of creating more intense colors, tones and light in the painting.
Camille Pissarro, who briefly joined the neo-Impressionists, called them “scientific impressionists”, thereby emphasizing the fundamental difference between his former comrades (“romantic impressionists”) and the new young associates.
As a movement, divisionism developed in addition to France in Belgium (Theo Van Risselberg) and especially in Italy (Giovanni Segantini) at the end of the 19th century, becoming one of the sources of the emergence of futurism there.
Masters of Divisionism: Georges Seurat, Paul Signac, Camille Pissarro, Lucien Pissarro, Henri Edmond Cross, Charles Theophilus Angran, Maximilian Luce, Hippolytus Ptizhan, Georges Lemmen, Theo Van Risselberg, Giovanni Segantini, Nikolai Mescheryakov.