Avant-gardism (from the French avant-garde – advanced detachment) – a set of experimental, modernist, emphasized unusual, exploratory endeavors in the art of the 20th century. The avant-garde directions are: Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, abstractionism, surrealism, actionism, pop art, conceptual art.
At different historical stages, the role of the avant-garde was played by successive currents: 1900-1910. – the time of the appearance of Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Dada, abstract art; in the 1920-1930s. Surrealism comes to the fore, in the post-war period, new trends of abstractionism arise – abstract expressionism, Tashism, informal art, etc .; 1960-1970s – the transitional era from the “classical” avant-garde to neo-avant-garde, or postmodernism with its components – actionism, pop art, conceptualism, kinetic art and other artistic art practices.
With all the variety of creative programs, ideas and methods of avant-garde movements in them, common features inherent in all can be distinguished: first of all, the desire for “liberation from form”, complete freedom of expression and emancipation, which was expressed primarily in a negative attitude to traditional art, rejection of the classical norms of pictoriality and beauty; as well as the associativity of thinking and the shocking nature of the presentation of their creations.
The main goal of avant-garde artists saw the creation of their subjective model of the world, a kind of “second reality” within life itself. Therefore, they sought to erase the boundaries between art and reality, to invade areas that were previously considered incompatible with art, to include works of art in the human environment. The slogan “Art – to life” is the best suited to determine the fundamental principle of Avant-garde, which has been rapidly developed in such forms as readymade, installation, environmental protection, happening.
Loosening the foundations of traditional art, creating many techniques, methods, forms of artistic and anti-artistic expression, avant-garde artists contributed to the emergence and development of new types of art, such as photography, cinema, electronic music.
Masters of avant-garde – Marcel Duchamp, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Vasily Kandinsky, Casimir Malevich, Paul Cezanne, Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Rene Margritte.