Abstract expressionism (Eng. Abstract expressionism) – a trend in abstract art that arose in the United States in the 1940s. and represented mainly by a flock of artists of the so-called New York School. Taking its roots in the early works of V. Kandinsky, partly in expressionism and adaism, abstraction expressionism was formed under the influence of surrealism and its fundamental principle of mental automatism, perceived by American artists from European artists who emigrated overseas during the Second World War: P. Mondrian, A. Breton, S. Dali, M. Ernst, R. Matt.
Following surrealism, abstract expressionism continued to “liberate” art from any control of the mind and logical laws, setting as its goal the spontaneous expression of the artist’s inner world, his subconscious in chaotic, abstract forms and taking as his main creative principle the spontaneous, automatic application of paints to the canvas, occurring solely under the influence of mental and emotional states.
In a rapid rhythm, the artists covered the surface of the canvas with large, energetic strokes, literally splashing out streams of “freely flowing color” onto it. At the same time, they often resorted to receiving dripping (splashing paint or squeezing it out of a tube), the inventor of which was J. Pollock. This expressive method of writing was considered no less important than the work itself, so the process of creating a picture often took place publicly. A whole performance was played in front of the audience, in which the artist’s gestures and movements played the same active role as the streams of paint falling and spilling over the canvas.
Hence the other name for abstract expressionism, given by the critic Harold Rosenberg, is “painting of action,” a definition that accurately emphasizes the physical act of creating a painting.
Abstract expressionism dominated American culture until the early 1960s, combining very different masters in the creative pursuit, which, however, did not prevent him from becoming one of the first serious movements in American painting and to influence the development of European art.
Masters of Abstract Expressionism: Jackson Shelf, Arshile Gorky, Hans Hoffman, William de Kunning, Mark Rothko, Robert Motherwell, Barnet Newman, Adolph Gottlieb, Franz Kline, Clifford Still, Philip Gaston, Sam Francis,
Abstract impressionism is the direction of abstract art in which free abstract compositions are created with a large brushstroke. The meaning of the image was to reflect the psychological state of the artist and his character.
Masters of Abstract Expressionism: Jackson Shelves, Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Lee Krasner