Abstractionism (from Latin abstraction– distraction, removal) is one of the directions in the art of the 20th century, the essence of which was the complete rejection of the depiction of real objects and phenomena in painting, drawing and sculpture. Abstractionism arose on the basis of such currents as cubism, futurism and expressionism. Some areas of abstractionism (Suprematism, neoplasticism) differed in ordered designs from lines, geometric shapes and volumes of various colors. And such a direction as tashism was rather a reflection of the spontaneity and unconsciousness of creativity in the dynamics of volumes and spots. Abstractionism sought to “harmonize”, the creation of certain color combinations and geometric shapes, so that the beholder formed certain associations. The date of abstractionism can be considered 1910, it was then that its founder V.V. Kandinsky presented the first abstract work in the history of art in Munich and wrote a treatise on the Spiritual in Art, where he substantiated his own creative methodology with scientific discoveries. After the First World War 1914-1918 tendencies of abstractionism were represented by separate works from representatives of Dadaism and surrealism, seeking to find application for non-pictorial forms in architecture, design and decorative art. Several groups of abstract art are known: “Circle and Square”, “Concrete Art”, “Abstraction and Creativity”. However, in the 30s, abstractionism failed to gain due popularity, and these groups broke up. During the years of World War II, a school of abstract expressionism appeared in the USA (the representatives were artists J. Polok and M. Toby). After the war, this movement received a new development in the world under the name “Tashism” or “formless art.” “Pure psychic automatism” was proclaimed as the main method, unexpected color and texture combinations were erected into a cult. In the 60s, another direction of abstract art appeared – op-art (optical art), which uses all kinds of optical illusions based on the perception of flat and spatial figures. Thus, in the late 40s and early 60s, abstractionism was the most popular trend in art.
And in the early 60s. abstract art as a trend fades into the background, and then completely replaced by various trends in art, referring to the subject and image. The most famous representatives of abstract art: Pete Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, as well as Kazimir Malevich, Vasily Kandinsky, Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova in Russia. In particular, the famous Pablo Picasso worked in a direction close to abstractionism: cubism, its characteristic feature is the image of real objects with the help of many intersecting planes that create the image of certain straight-line figures that reproduce living nature. The most famous works related to abstractionism are the paintings of K. Malevich “Black Square”, V.V. Kandinsky “Moscow”, “Composition X”, “Gray Oval” and P. Picasso “Portrait of a Girl”.
The attitude to abstractionism is ambiguous. After all, artists, drawing such abstract canvases, represented a kind of abstract spectator, which may be limited to the perception of “paint vibration”. Kandinsky said that art is becoming more specialized, and at the same time, understandable only to the artists themselves, who are upset by the indifference of the audience to their works. For unprepared contemplators, abstract canvases are of no artistic value. Many of them call such works “daub”, “simply by color and forms”, “nonsense” and so on. Artists relied on understanding in the future, but over time, interest in abstract art did not go beyond narrow artistic circles.