Geometric abstractionism
Geometric abstractionism (other names - cold abstraction, logical, intellectual abstractionism) is a trend in abstract art based on the creation of art space by combining various geometric shapes, color planes,…

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The new materiality
The new materiality (German Neue Sachlichkeit) is an art movement in German art of the 1920s - early 1930s, which represented the tradition of neoclassicism in the general context of…

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Cubism
Cubism (from French cubisme, came from cube - cube) is a modernist trend in painting of the early twentieth century, which highlighted the formal task of constructing volumetric shapes on…

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Verism

Verism (from Italian. Il verismo, from the word vero – true, truthful) is a realistic trend in Italian fine art of the late 19th century. The term originated in the 17th century, was used in the visual arts and denoted a realistic stream in Baroque painting. Then the term is revived in the second half of the 19th century, being a designation (very vague, vague) of a realistic and naturalistic trend in Italian art. The most famous artists of this direction are J. Fattori, S. Lega, T. Sinrini, O. Borrani, V. Kabyanka, J. Abbati and others.

The principles of verisma were formed mainly under the influence of French naturalism. Relying on the work of E. Zola, G. Flaubert and G. de Maupassant, verists set the main tasks of their work to be objective and a scientific approach to the study of facts (from the standpoint of positivism) in depicting the life realities of modern Italian society, everyday life and psychology of ordinary people. The national originality of this movement manifested itself in deep sympathy for the oppressed working people, whose life (mainly the peasantry and the poor of the province) was the main content of the novels and short stories of the theoreticians of Verisma – J. Vergi, L. Capuana, D. Ciampoli, operas by P. Mascagni, R Leoncavallo, J. Puccini.

In the visual arts, the immediate predecessors of the verists were the artists of the Florentine school “Macchioli”, who turned in their work to the themes of the national liberation struggle of the Italian people, urban and rural life. In painting, verism was represented mainly by Neapolitan masters who developed socially critical tendencies in art (the struggle of the working class for their rights, hard peasant life) and created a whole gallery of images of prominent figures in Italian history and culture.

However, the verists did not see the public possibility of eliminating social injustice; their works were dominated by moods of pessimism and doom, a passive-naturalistic perception of reality (in literature and painting) or melodramatism, superficial illustrativeness, exaggerated emotionality (in music). Not widespread in the fine arts of Italy, verism nonetheless played an important role in the development of realistic trends in the world art process.

Masters of Verisma: Francesco Paolo Michetti, Giuseppe Pelitstsa da Volpedo, Vincenzo Vela, Francesco Ajec, Giovanni Fattori, Silvestro Lega.

Abstractionism
Abstractionism (from Latin abstraction– distraction, removal) is one of the directions in the art of the 20th century, the essence of which was the complete rejection of the depiction of…

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Baroque
Baroque (from Italian. Barocco - strange, bizarre) - from the end of the XVI to the middle of the XVIII centuries. was the mainstream dominating in Europe and America. A…

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Academism
Academism (from the French academisme) is a direction in European painting of the 16th-19th centuries. It was based on dogmatic following the external forms of classical art. Followers characterized this…

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Abstractionism
Abstractionism (from Latin abstraction– distraction, removal) is one of the directions in the art of the 20th century, the essence of which was the complete rejection of the depiction of…

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