Empire (from the French. Empire – empire) – a style in architecture and decorative art that arose in France at the beginning of the 19th century, during the First Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. Empire is the final development of classicism. For the embodiment of majesty, sophistication, luxury, power and military strength, Ampiru is characterized by an appeal to ancient art: ancient Egyptian decorative forms (trophies, winged sphinxes …), Etruscan vases, Pompeii paintings, Greek and Roman decor, Renaissance frescoes and ornaments. The main representative of this style was J.L. David (paintings “The Oath of Horatius” (1784), “Brutus” (1789))
The predecessor of the Empire style – classicism – placed human dignity above all. Architecture was strictly proportionate to this virtue. The empire came in order to affirm the absolute superiority of the emperor over peoples and countries. The name of the style, derived from the French. “Empire,” speaks for itself quite loudly – “empire.” The empire is also called late classicism, since it was born along with the ambitions of the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and a negligible period of 30 years reigned. Continue reading
Academism (from the French academisme) is a direction in European painting of the 16th-19th centuries. It was based on dogmatic following the external forms of classical art. Followers characterized this style as a discourse on the art form of the ancient ancient world and the Renaissance. Academism replenished the traditions of ancient art, in which the image of nature was idealized, while compensating for the norm of beauty. Annibale, Agostino and Lodovico Carracci wrote in this style.
The history of the development of Academism is associated with the “Academy of the Right Path” in Bologna (c. 1585), the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648) and the Russian Academy of Three Noble Arts (1757).
The activities of all the academies were based on a strictly regulated educational system, focused on the great achievements of previous eras – antiquity and the Italian Renaissance, from which the individual qualities of classical art that were accepted as ideal and unsurpassed were consciously selected. Continue reading
Avant-gardism (from the French avant-garde – advanced detachment) – a set of experimental, modernist, emphasized unusual, exploratory endeavors in the art of the 20th century. The avant-garde directions are: Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, abstractionism, surrealism, actionism, pop art, conceptual art.
At different historical stages, the role of the avant-garde was played by successive currents: 1900-1910. – the time of the appearance of Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Dada, abstract art; in the 1920-1930s. Surrealism comes to the fore, in the post-war period, new trends of abstractionism arise – abstract expressionism, Tashism, informal art, etc .; 1960-1970s – the transitional era from the “classical” avant-garde to neo-avant-garde, or postmodernism with its components – actionism, pop art, conceptualism, kinetic art and other artistic art practices. Continue reading
Abstract expressionism (Eng. Abstract expressionism) – a trend in abstract art that arose in the United States in the 1940s. and represented mainly by a flock of artists of the so-called New York School. Taking its roots in the early works of V. Kandinsky, partly in expressionism and adaism, abstraction expressionism was formed under the influence of surrealism and its fundamental principle of mental automatism, perceived by American artists from European artists who emigrated overseas during the Second World War: P. Mondrian, A. Breton, S. Dali, M. Ernst, R. Matt.
Following surrealism, abstract expressionism continued to “liberate” art from any control of the mind and logical laws, setting as its goal the spontaneous expression of the artist’s inner world, his subconscious in chaotic, abstract forms and taking as his main creative principle the spontaneous, automatic application of paints to the canvas, occurring solely under the influence of mental and emotional states. Continue reading
Abstractionism (from Latin abstraction– distraction, removal) is one of the directions in the art of the 20th century, the essence of which was the complete rejection of the depiction of real objects and phenomena in painting, drawing and sculpture. Abstractionism arose on the basis of such currents as cubism, futurism and expressionism. Some areas of abstractionism (Suprematism, neoplasticism) differed in ordered designs from lines, geometric shapes and volumes of various colors. And such a direction as tashism was rather a reflection of the spontaneity and unconsciousness of creativity in the dynamics of volumes and spots. Abstractionism sought to “harmonize”, the creation of certain color combinations and geometric shapes, so that the beholder formed certain associations. The date of abstractionism can be considered 1910, it was then that its founder V.V. Kandinsky presented the first abstract work in the history of art in Munich and wrote a treatise on the Spiritual in Art, where he substantiated his own creative methodology with scientific discoveries. Continue reading