Naturalism – (French naturalisme, from lat. Natura – nature) – a direction in literature and art that developed in the last third of the XIX century in Europe and the USA. Under the influence of the ideas of positivism, the main representatives of which were O. Comte and G. Spencer, this movement strove for an objective and dispassionate depiction of reality, likening artistic knowledge to scientific, proceeded from the idea of the complete predetermination of fate, the dependence of the spiritual world of a person on the social environment, heredity and physiology.
In the field of art, naturalism was developed primarily in the works of French writers – brothers E. and J. Goncurov and Emil Zola, who believed that the artist should reflect the world around him without any embellishment, conventions and taboos, with maximum objectivity, positivistic truth. Continue reading